Jagadish Bose

Mechanical and Electrical Responses in Living Matter

Article by Jagadis Bose
The first two chapters of Response in the Living and Non-living.


“Unlike muscle, a length of nerve, when mechanically or electrically excited, does not undergo any visible change. That it is thrown into an excitatory state, and that it conducts the excitatory disturbance, is shown however by the contraction produced in an attached piece of muscle, which serves as an indicator….

Response in the Living and Non-Living

Jagadish Bose
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This is one of the great Indian scientist’s earlier works.

His experiments showed that in the entire range of responses—regardless of whether the subject is metallic, plant or animal—the responses are identical. The living response, in all its diverse modifications, is a repetition of the responses seen in the inorganic.

Further, the nature of the response is determined not by the play of an unknowable and arbitrary vital force, but by laws that do not change, and act equally and uniformly throughout both organic and inorganic matter.

This realization was always at the core of his work. He sought to show that all materials react to their environments according to the same laws; in other words, everything exists in the same field of consciousness.